国际社会主义女权主义者同伊朗女性斗争团结起来

作者: Frieda Afary 日期: 2018-02-13 来源: 酷兒工友

  国际社会主义女权主义者同伊朗女性斗争团结起来

  (2018年02月10日)

  作:Frieda Afary

  译:继轲

  校:桑林

  As socialist feminists,  we support  the courageous Iranian women who have been taking off their headscarves in public to express their opposition to the compulsory hijab in Iran.Since December 27, dozens of women have taken off their scarves in public places and have been arrested or temporarily released after posting heavy bails.

  作为社会主义女权主义者,我们应当支持那些勇敢无畏的在公众场合摘下面纱以反抗伊朗强制女性带面纱规定的伊朗女性。自12月27号以来,有许多伊朗女性在公众场合摘下面纱并因此被捕或是在缴纳了高额保释金后才得暂时释放。

  These brave women who believe that wearing the hijab should be a matter of individual choice without any imposition from above,  reflect the wishes of a majority of the Iranian public  according to the Iranian regime’s own polls.

  这些勇敢的女性认为:带不带面纱完全应当是个人选择而不是强制性的行为。根据伊朗官方的民意调查,她们也反映了大多数伊朗民众的看法。

  In fact, since December 28, 2017,  a wave of popular protests and strikes has been spreading throughout Iran in opposition to the Islamic Republic.  These protests have included broad sectors of the Iranian working class,  women and men, mostly young,  and have  been preceded by and continue to involve employed and unemployed workers,  students, teachers, healthcare workers, retirees,  the dispossessed and the families of political prisoners.   They include members of various oppressed national minorities such as Arabs, Kurds and Azaris as well as persecuted religious minorities such as Baha’is.

  事实上自2017年12月28日起,伊朗爆发了一大波反对伊斯兰共和国的民众抗议和罢工浪潮。抗议者的分布范围很广,其中有伊朗的工人阶级,男性和女性,大多数是年轻人,并且陆陆续续地有在职业和失业工人、学生、教师、医务人员、退休者、流浪者以及政治犯的家属加入。其中还包括了许多受压迫少数民族的成员,如阿拉伯人、库尔德人以及阿塞拜疆人,以及一些受迫害的宗教少数派,如巴哈伊教徒等。

  The latest expressions of opposition to the compulsory hijab by individual women have been not only part of this new wave of popular protest, but  also part of a four-decade long resistance by Iranian women against the Islamic Republic,  and  for civil rights and  human rights.  Despite severe repression,  Iranian feminists have expressed themselves  through novels, blogs, websites, group discussions and  translations of works by international feminists.

  近期一位个别伊朗女性对于强制带面纱所表现出的反抗,不仅是新一波民众抗议浪潮的一部分,而且也是伊朗妇女反对伊斯兰共和国、为公民权和人权而斗争的四十年抵抗运动的一部分。并非仅仅是这场新兴抗议当中的一部分,更是处于四十年来伊朗女性对于伊斯兰共和国的反抗以及民权和人权运动当中。尽管面临着严重的压迫,伊朗女权主义者还是通过小说、博客、网站、小组讨论以及翻译国际女权主义文献来表达他们的观点。

  Some socialists,  inside and outside Iran,  have belittled the  protests against the compulsory hijab as “liberal feminism” and “not radical enough.”  In the words of a seasoned socialist feminist inside Iran however:  “Today,  Iranian women need freedom from headscarves, full veils or any cover.  They need the civil rights that they have been denied.  Once the expansion of the demonstrations leads to the realization of these freedoms. . .  the struggle can go beyond them and become the beginning of  women’s struggle against the reification of social relations.”

  某些社会主义者,无论是伊朗内外的伊朗国内外的一些社会主义者,一度将反抗强制带面纱的斗争斥作是“自由主义女权主义的”或是“不够激进的”。然而伊朗某位成熟经验丰富的社会主义女权主义者这样说道:“在今天,伊朗女性急需从面纱、全罩式面纱或其他各种面部遮罩当中解放出来。她们需要曾被拒绝承认的公民权利。一旦这场示威扩展到认识到这些自由的需要……这场斗争就能超越之这种公民权利的诉求并变成反对具体的社会关系的妇女斗争的开端。”

  Almost 40 years ago,  Tens of thousands of  Iranian women throughout Iran, marched and protested  for five days from  March 8 to March 12, 1979 to commemorate International Women’s Day and  to say no to Ayatollah Khomeini’s order to make the hijab compulsory and  abolish the limited rights which the family protection law under the previous regime gave them.   Those brave Iranian women who had participated in the revolution against the repressive regime of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,  chanted:  “We Didn’t Make a Revolution to Go Backward.”

  大约在40年前,数万伊朗女性举行了五天的大游行(从3月8号到3月12号)以庆祝国际妇女节并表示拒绝抗议阿亚图拉·霍梅尼强制女性戴面纱和废除家庭保护法当中当前政权给予她们的有限权利的命令。那些参加了反对国王穆罕默德·礼萨·巴勒维反动政权的革命的勇敢的伊朗女性高呼道:“我们是不会让革命倒退的!”

  At that time, some Iranian socialist men supported the women’s protests.  However, most  Iranian socialists and socialist organizations opposed the protests and called on women to stop their marches and sit ins because they were “diverting” the struggle from the main goal of opposition to U.S. imperialism and the monarchy.

  那时,有些男性伊朗社会主义者支持了妇女的抗议活动。然而大多数伊朗社会社会主义者和社会主义组织是反对该抗议的,并且要求妇女们停止运动游行,保持安静静坐示威,因为她们在使得斗争“偏离”反对美帝国主义和霸权主义的主要目标。

  International leftist feminist, Kate Millett, and  socialist and Marxist feminists like Claudine Moullard, Leila Sebbatt, Simone De Beauvoir, Raya Dunayevskaya  however, reached out to Iranian women with statements of support, articles,  or in the case of Millett and De Beauvoir’s colleagues,  actual fact-finding trips to Iran to meet and March with Iranian women.    They recognized the importance of women’s protests against the compulsory hijab  and the women’s liberation struggle in general as an effort to deepen the revolution and challenge Khomeini’s drive to impose a counter-revolution.

  国际左翼女权主义者如凯特·米利特,以及社会主义者和马克思主义女权主义者如克劳丁·莫拉德、莱莎·西巴特、西蒙娜·德·波伏娃、莱亚·杜娜叶夫斯卡娅,都以支持声明、文章或在米利特和波伏娃及其同事真的策划了去伊朗的行程,对伊朗进行实地调查,与伊朗妇女会面并游行面见并同伊朗女性一起游行的方式对伊朗女性表示支持。她们意识到了伊朗女性反抗强制戴面纱抗议的重要性,以及女性解放斗争是可以推动革命深入进行并且打击霍梅尼的反动企图的。

  Today, we the signatories of this statement,  refuse to separate our opposition to U.S. imperialism and any imperialist war drive on Iran,  from our support for the progressive and revolutionary  social justice struggles of Iranian women, workers and oppressed minorities against their regime.

  今日我们签署这份声明,我们拒绝将反对美帝国主义和任何对伊朗的帝国主义战争帝国主义战争的任务单独推给伊朗,因为我们也从支持伊朗妇女、工人和受压迫少数民族反对其政权的进步的和革命的社会正义斗争中分离出来。

  We too are suffering from rising authoritarianism,  right-wing populism, and neo-fascism in the U.S., Europe, Russia, China,  South Asia, Africa,  Latin America, Australia as well as whole of the Middle East.

  我们同中东人民一样,无论不管是身处何方,在美国、欧洲、俄国、某大国、南非、非洲、拉丁美洲、澳大利亚,……我们都同中东人民一样,面临着极权主义、右翼民粹主义以及新法西斯主义的兴起。

  In the West,    hard fought women’s rights  in what have been  known as “ liberal democracies”  are under severe attack.   At the same time,  the new “me too movement” against sexual harassment and sexual assault is growing , and targeting  the abuse of women in all spheres whether government,  academia or the arts,  corporations or factories,  service sector jobs or the family.   African American women who have always experienced the triple oppression of racism, sexism and capitalism continue to represent the most radical dimension of women’s struggles.

  在西方,号称“自由民主的国家”经过艰苦斗争得来的女性权利也在遭到猛烈攻击。同时,新兴的反对性骚扰和性侵的“me too 运动”正在兴起,其目标为消灭一切环境中——无论是在政府、学术界还是在艺术领域、行政机关还是在工厂、服务业部门或家庭当中——对女性的侵害。一直遭受种族主义、性别歧视和资本主义三重压迫的非裔美国女性继续代表着女性斗争中最激进的一面。那些总是受着种族主义、性别主义和资本主义的三重压迫的非裔美籍女性也总是代表着妇女运动当中最为进步的方向。

  Given the global nature of the assault on women,   it is extremely important for women who oppose capitalist imperialist patriarchy, misogyny, racism and homophobia to come together and link our struggles  to find a  new direction forward  and to develop  an alternative  humanist way of producing, living, organizing  and relating to our fellow human beings and to nature.

  鉴于全球范围攻击女性的大环境,将一切反对资本主义帝国主义父权制、厌女症、种族主义和恐同症的女性团结起来,并将我们的斗争联合在一起以寻找一个新的前进方向并创造出可持续且人道主义的生产、生活和组织方式使得人与自然和谐共存,显得尤为重要。

  Toward this aim, we salute our Iranian sisters and reach out to them in solidarity.  We call on others who agree with this statement to join us in this effort.

  为了这个目标,我们向我们的伊朗姐妹们致敬并愿意同她们团结在一起。我们呼吁一切认同以上声明的人参与到我们的队伍当中。

  延伸阅读:

  Support Iranian Women’s Acts of Protest Against the Compulsory Hijab: Drawing Lessons from 1979 and Today

  (Feb 11, 2018)

  www.allianceofmesocialists.org/support-iranian-womens-acts-protest-compulsory-hijab-drawing-lessons-1979-today/

  Iranian Progressives in Translation

  (A Blog by Frieda Afary)

  www.iranianprogressives.org/

  欢迎参与声援联署,联署应包含(但不限于)以下内容:个人称呼、自我介绍。

  联署请使用英文!!!

  联署截止日期:2018年02月14日24:00

  联署请致信:qwsc.cn@gmail.com

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