关于基因编辑的造谣新闻

作者: 杨晓陆 日期: 2018-04-08 来源: 红歌会网

  本文同时发至不良信息举报中心、中纪委。

  直言了,2018-03-31(已发)。

  https://sites.google.com/site/zhiyanpage2/2018/zy8331-usda-statement

  新华社本月29日报道说:美国农业部长28日发表声明,表示不会对使用一些新技术育种的农作物进行监管,其中包括基因编辑技术。与通常所说的转基因作物需要转入外源遗传物质有所不同的是,基因编辑育种使用CRISPR-Cas9或锌指核酸酶(ZFN)等技术对植物基因进行编辑,可设计出不含外源DNA的植物。美国现行法律规定,只有由细菌等植物病原体或其DNA构建的转基因作物被认定为“管制作物”,最新声明再次明确了基因编辑作物不会受到监管。#

  新华社三农记者董峻转发那条新闻说:“转出来给反反看一下,虽然估计他们也搞不懂基因编辑和转基因是啥区别”,云云。#

  新华社那篇报道搞了篡改和搞造谣新闻。该媒体记者董峻试图嘲笑抵制基改农业的民众,却再次暴露了他是混进国家机关的基改利益集团的舆论枪手,是个不懂装懂和多次讲假话的混饭记者。简说吧:

  事实:美国主管部门说明,基因编辑和转基因的区别不在于该报道所谓是否含有外源DNA,而在于基因工程技术的作业方式和控制程度。美国FDA(2017-04-12)原文:

  Genome Editing is a term used to describe a relatively new set of technologies that enable one to make precise changes in the DNA of a plant, animal or other living organism. For example, such technologies can be used to introduce, remove, or substitute one or more specific nucleotides at a specific site in the organism’s genome.

  基因编辑改变基因结构功能,因而,FDA规定,使用基因编辑的动物之相关部分作为药品(不得作食用)实行监管。相关原文(2017-01-18):When animals are produced using genome editing, FDA has determined that, unless otherwise excluded, the portion of an animal’s genome that has been intentionally altered, whether mediated by rDNA or modern genome editing technologies, is a drug because it is intended to alter the structure or function of the animal and, thus, subject to regulation under our provisions for new animal drugs.

  事实:基因编辑新方法主要发明人杜德纳博士及其团队说明基因编辑和转基因的不同主要特征:

  ::转基因为:DNA水平,DNA-RNA-蛋白。

  ::基因编辑:RNA水平,蛋白-RNA-DNA。

  2017年底,美国国家科学院报告和联合国专题会议指出,转基因等手段的基因驱动可实现目标遗传的几率为50%,而基因编辑的基因驱动则可在第三代实现100%;同时,国际学界多数人认为,反基因编辑(anti-CRISPR,没看到标准翻译、暂且如此)已成为有目标地控制或放纵脱靶现象及其功能的重要课题。

  因而,基因编辑作物的危害风险更大和更隐蔽。由此,美国情报、国防和国安部门将其列入了与核弹一样(甚至超过核弹)的具有规模杀伤力的头号安全威胁列单。

  事实:该报道把美国农业部及部长声明相关所言做了篡改,即砍掉了一部分。譬如,该声明原话是:

  At the same time, I want to be clear to consumers that we will not be stepping away from our regulatory responsibilities. While these crops do not require regulatory oversight, we do have an important role to play in protecting plant health by evaluating products developed using modern biotechnology。

  该报道只保留了其中的[do not require regulatory oversight](不需管制)字句,砍掉了[we will not be stepping away from our regulatory responsibilities](我们不会甩掉我们的管制责任)。那不是篡改行为、还能是啥行为呢?

  美国农业部及其部长的声明清楚交代,其声明的前提是“Under its biotechnology regulations”,也被该报道砍掉。该前提所谓的生物工程技术规定,指的是美国白宫颁布的行政令和美国当局通过的相关法规(譬如基因技术食品作物标识法)。那些规范明确说明,凡是用基因工程技术获得的作物、即非常规或非自然获得或自然界没有的,都必须标识、即必须实行国家管理(包括管制或监管)。相关原文:

  SEC. 291. <In this subtitle:

  (1) Bioengineering.--The term `bioengineering', and any similar term, as determined by the Secretary, with respect to a food, refers to a food--

  (A) that contains genetic material that has been modified through in vitro recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques; and

  (B) for which the modification could not otherwise be obtained through conventional breeding or found in nature.

  还有,美国众议院通过的法案要求:就食品供应链(通常包括生产、运输、储存、销售等各个环节),基改(GMO)作物和非基改(Non-GMO)作物的必须区分开来。按照上述法规规定,基改包括基因编辑和转基因、也包括其它非自然或非常规育种)。相关文字如下:

  H.R.1599 - Safe and Accurate Food Labeling Act of 2015 (114th Congress (2015-2016)):

  For a food to be sold as a product produced without genetic engineering (non-GMO), the food must be subject to supply chain process controls that keep the product separated from GMOs and must be produced and handled in compliance with a non-genetically engineered food plan, which is a description of procedures to ensure compliance, monitoring records, and corrective actions in the event of a deviation from the plan.

  For food derived from livestock to be sold as non-GMO, the product, livestock, feed, and products used in processing the feed must be produced without GMOs.#

  上述事实铁证说明,美国法律规定实施管制的基因工程技术作物,包罗万象,包括基因编辑和转基因或其它基改技术的作物、也包括动物和植物,而不是只限于该报道造谣说的【只有由细菌等植物病原体或其DNA构建的转基因作物】。对照事实,新华社报道是造谣新闻。

  事实:对比可见,美国农业部及其部长的那个声明,似乎与上述法规法案规范彼此冲突。美国是三权分立的国家体制,因而,那种行政部门和立法部门的立场冲突现象、在美国国家生活中常见。问题在于:在美国,法律至高无上,因此,最后拍板的还是国家法规、而不是行政部门首长的声明。

  就这次美国农业部长声明故事来说,大致情节是:在上述法规规范通过之前,美国农业部在基因编辑蘑菇作物事件方面表达了【不需管制】的立场;而上述法规规范通过,相当于推翻该立场。美国农业部必须服从白宫和国会的行政令和法规规范规定,于是,就本部门执行细节条款而开始起草相关规定规范。在这过程中,美国农业部颁布而又废除了草案,并数次重复其【不需管制】的立场;现在是又一回合。

  譬如,下面是美国农业部2017-11-30发布的撤销当年一月份草拟的与基因编辑作物相关的管理规范条例的相关公告文字:

  On November 7, 2017, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service withdrew the proposed rule to revise the agency’s biotechnology regulations that had been announced in January. The information and documents below relate to that proposed rule, now withdrawn. We continue to make this information available to all stakeholders for reference purposes.(后略)。

  如是,美国农业部长的新近声明,不过是做立场重复表达而已,尽管其声明立场与白宫行政令和国会通过的相关法规法案有冲突。

  就那类故事,一开始,欧美主要媒体抢着做报道;次数多了,故事没新闻价值了、就不那么抢先报道了。譬如,就这次美国农业部声明,到目前已经三天了、欧美主要媒体还没几个做象样报道的。

  就当下状态看,美国FDA完成了本部门相关规定规范、包括都基因编辑作物必须【有所管制】的内容(譬如,动物方面,基因编辑部分作为药品而不是食用来管理)。就此,除非美国农业部能说服白宫和国会废除已颁发的相关行政令和法规规范,该部门早晚得改变其【不需管制】的立场。不管怎样,这次是美国农业部长亲自出马阐明基因编辑技术作物【不需管制】的立场,那就意味着一个已经议论多时的故事:美国和全球的20多年实践证明转基因技术作物失败了,基改种子化工公司和权利人企图用基因编辑作物来全面替代、至少已经等了三年左右而不想再等了。

  从这个发展角度看,新华社记者用篡改手段搞谣言新闻报道美国农业部长声明,那是为基改商业利益提供新闻舆论服务的,不言而喻(且不止一次)。新华社已上市而国家机构私有化了、金钱第一而不是国家安全和公众利益第一了,那不奇怪。奇怪的是:中国当局并没有说虚假新闻【不需管制】、而是一直强调严加管制的。在这情况下,一些官媒为中外勾结的基改商业利益而频频发布谣言新闻,甚至新华社主任记者董峻利用职权方便而明目张胆地与国内屏蔽的境外组织勾结、参与并张扬非法的转基因【试吃】活动,都没有管制,那个专职【辟谣】的机构也从不做这方面的【辟谣】。

  附件:新华社记者发表的相关报道。

  美农业部确认不监管基因编辑作物。

  2018-03-29 12:55:16 来源: 新华网。

  http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2018-03/29/c_129840261.htm

  附件:美国农业部长声明原文全文(来源:美国农业部)。Secretary Perdue Issues USDA Statement on Plant Breeding Innovation.Press Release Release No. 0070.18.

  https://www.usda.gov/media/press-releases/2018/03/28/secretary-perdue-issues-usda-statement-plant-breeding-innovation

  (Washington, D.C., March 28, 2018) – U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue today issued a statement providing clarification on the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) oversight of plants produced through innovative new breeding techniques which include techniques called genome editing.

  Under its biotechnology regulations, USDA does not regulate or have any plans to regulate plants that could otherwise have been developed through traditional breeding techniques as long as they are not plant pests or developed using plant pests. This includes a set of new techniques that are increasingly being used by plant breeders to produce new plant varieties that are indistinguishable from those developed through traditional breeding methods. The newest of these methods, such as genome editing, expand traditional plant breeding tools because they can introduce new plant traits more quickly and precisely, potentially saving years or even decades in bringing needed new varieties to farmers.

  “With this approach, USDA seeks to allow innovation when there is no risk present,” said Secretary Perdue. “At the same time, I want to be clear to consumers that we will not be stepping away from our regulatory responsibilities. While these crops do not require regulatory oversight, we do have an important role to play in protecting plant health by evaluating products developed using modern biotechnology. This is a role USDA has played for more than 30 years, and one I will continue to take very seriously, as we work to modernize our technology-focused regulations.”

  “Plant breeding innovation holds enormous promise for helping protect crops against drought and diseases while increasing nutritional value and eliminating allergens,” Perdue said. “Using this science, farmers can continue to meet consumer expectations for healthful, affordable food produced in a manner that consumes fewer natural resources. This new innovation will help farmers do what we aspire to do at USDA: do right and feed everyone.”

  USDA is one of three federal agencies which regulate products of food and agricultural technology. Together, USDA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have a Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology that ensures these products are safe for the environment and human health. USDA’s regulations focus on protecting plant health; FDA oversees food and feed safety; and EPA regulates the sale, distribution, and testing of pesticides in order to protect human health and the environment.

  USDA continues to coordinate closely with its EPA and FDA partners to fulfill oversight responsibilities and provide the appropriate regulatory environment. This ensures the safety of products derived from new technologies, while fostering innovation at the same time.

  =0==0=

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